LT-PBR Recipes

Recipes for You to Use and Adapt

Numerous recipes and conceptual diagrams exist for low tech process based restoration structures. Here we highlight some examples and references for you to follow and/or adapt.

Structure Recipes

Low-Tech Techniques & Resources Organized by Processes Promoted

Adapted from Appendix C (Table 4) in Chapter 1 - Shahverdian et al. (2019)

Promoting and/or Mimicking Wood Accumulation

Name Helpful Reference(s)
Seeding of Wood – Direct Recruitment of Unanchored Wood  
Direct Felling Carah, J.K., Blencowe, C.C., Wright, D.W. and Bolton, L.A., 2014. Low-Cost Restoration Technique for Rapidly Increasing Wood Cover in Coastal Coho Salmon Streams. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. DOI: 10.1080/02755947.2014.943861
Grip-Hoisting Micelston, E., 2014. Rigging Handbook for Trail Work, New York-New Jersey Trail Conference. New York - New Jersey Trail Conference, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 24.
  An Introduction to Rigging for Trail Work
Name Helpful Reference(s)
Structural Placement of Wood Accumulations  
Post-Assisted Log Structures Chapter 5 (Shahverdian et al., 2019)
Submerged Shelters Page 34-35 of White and Bryndilson (1967)
Name Helpful Reference(s)
Improving Supply of Woody Material  
Riparian Plantings (Hall et al., 2011)
Practical Grazing Management for Riparian Areas (Swanson et al., 2015)
Fencing Page 34-35 of White and Bryndilson (1967)

Promoting and/or Mimicking Beaver Dam Activity

Name Helpful Reference(s)
Beaver Translocation (Woodruff and Pollock, 2015)
Beaver Dam Analogues Chapter 5 (Shahverdian et al., 2019)
Trapping Closures Figure 7; (Valachovic)
Grazing Management (to improve vegetation availability for beaver dam activity) See Chapter II of Kraebel and Pillsbury (1934); See Butterfield et al. (2019) - Holistic Management Handbook

Promoting Root Mat Production in Wet Meadows with Erosion Control

Many of these structures are commonly used in “erosion control” intermittent & ephemeral channels, but not exclusively. These are used frequently in channels that have headcut and extended into wet meadows and threaten the continued key process of root mat production in those meadows. In such situations, these meadows may have naturally not had any channels, or less incised channels or even discontinous channels. See Kraebel and Pillsbury for brush, wood and rock examples and here for some rock-based examples of erosion control.

Name Helpful Reference(s)
Baffles (Zeedyk and Clothier, 2009) - See pp. 85-91.
One Rock Dams (Maestas et al., 2018; Zeedyk and Clothier, 2009) - see pp 102-104 in Zeedyke and Clothier (2009); see also Pocket Guide
Post and Brush Dams Kraebel and Pillsbury (1934) - See Structures No. 7 & 8 (Figures 20-29)
Post and Brush Plugs Kraebel and Pillsbury (1934) - See Structure No. 2 (Figure 10)
Tree Dam Kraebel and Pillsbury (1934) - See Structures No. 11 & 12 (Figures 36-38)
Tree Plug Kraebel and Pillsbury (1934) - See Structure No. 3 (Figure 11)
Vanes (Zeedyk and Clothier, 2009) - See pp. 92-98.
Wicker Wiers (Zeedyk and Clothier, 2009) - See pp. 100-102.
Zuni Bowls (Maestas et al., 2018; Zeedyk and Clothier, 2009) - See pp 106-107 in Zeedy and Clothier (2009); see also Pocket Guide

Zeedyk, B. and Clothier, V., 2009. Let the Water Do the Work: Induced Meandering, an Evolving Method for Restoring Incised Channels. Island Press, Washington D.C., 256 pp

Kraebel, C.J. and Pillsbury, A.F., 1934. Handbook of Erosion Control in Mouuntain Meadows, U.S. Forest Service, California Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA.

Maestas, J.D., Conner, S., Zeedyk, B., Neely, B., Rondeau, R., N. Seward, Chapman, T., With, L. and Murph., R., 2018. Hand-built structures for restoring degraded meadows in sagebrush rangelands: Examples and lessons learned from the Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service, Range Techncial Note No. 40. Denver, CO.

White RJ and Brynildson OM. 1967. Guidelines for management of trout stream habitat in Wisconsin. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources: Madison, WI. 68 pp.

Swanson S, Wyman S, Evans C. 2015. Practical Grazing Management to Maintain or Restore Riparian Functions and Values on Rangelands. Journal of Range Management 2 : 28 pp.

Ones You Can Use Legally

Of the recipes we provided in the Manual, most are open source so you can use them for your purposes in your own designs, permit applications and reports. Like most recipes, local adaptations, substitutions and changes can be made to best suit your needs. However, when getting started, or for defining minimum standards of practice, the receipes are helpful. We license all these with a creative commons attribution license so you can adapt for your own purposes and, distribute and share:

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